NORSI RESEARCH SCHOOL CONFERENCE 2018 – ABSTRACTS
Please see all abstracts in order of presentation times.
Day 1: Thursday, 11 January 2018
SESSION 1: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Roger Sørheim, NTNU
13:00 – 13:30 Attributes of external stakeholder engagement and sustainability-oriented innovation: lessons from the Norwegian minerals industry, Babak Ghassim, UiT- Arctic
Senior Opponent: Magnus Gulbrandsen, University of Oslo TIK; Junior Opponent: Silje Haus- Reve, University of Stavanger
Businesses have shown increasing interest in introducing innovative solutions concerning their products, processes and practices that can enable them to achieve economic, environmental and social sustainability. While the focus in this line of research has been to explore how companies deal with primary and secondary stakeholders in order to innovate, we have yet to understand the characteristics and impacts of various mechanisms for engagement with stakeholders in innovation processes. To address this gap, this paper draws on the literature on innovation, and particularly open innovation, to identify the aspects of stakeholder engagement that might have impact on the outcome from innovations aimed at sustainability. Accordingly, we distinguish between one-way and two-way stakeholder engagements, and further combine this dichotomy with breadth (the variety of stakeholder groups a company uses) and depth (the intensity of interactions) dimensions of linkages to examine the effect of four different types of engagement on SOI performance. The regression results based on a sample of 101 mineral companies in Norway reveal that two-way engagement, where the focal firm and stakeholder(s) participate actively in knowledge exchange processes, are relatively more significant for innovation performance. Furthermore, broadness of stakeholder engagement in both one-way and two-way mechanisms are positively related to innovation performance. On the other hand, while increasing the intensity of knowledge acquisition from external stakeholders could weakly augment the likelihood of innovation, intense collaborations is not significant for this outcome. Hence, we suggest firm managers to include a diverse range of stakeholders in their pathway to sustainability, though the level of engagement with different groups of stakeholders should be adjusted according to the internal resources and capacity. This paper contributes to the literature on stakeholder engagement and sustainability by providing nuanced empirical insight to the relationships between firms’ various types of linkages with external stakeholders and their innovation performance. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that employ an original survey-based dataset to examine the effect of stakeholder engagement on the outcome from sustainability practices.
13:30 – 14:00 Certain rent in an uncertain world: a macroeconomic interpretation of entrepreneurship, Beniamino Callegari, BI – Norwegian Business School
Senior Opponent: Arne Isaksen, University of Agder; Junior Opponent: Erlend O. Simensen, University of Oslo TIK
Cantillon is widely credited with introducing the concept of entrepreneurship in economic analysis. To the modern reader’s surprise, the typical Cantillonian entrepreneur is the sharecropper, tending the landowner’s fields for residual income. Entrepreneurship is defined in macroeconomic terms, as the economic function protecting rent from uncertainty. The article reconstructs the original macroeconomic meaning of entrepreneurship through the analysis of three authors who have studied the phenomenon at the aggregate level, under conditions of uncertainty: Cantillon, Knight and Schumpeter. On the basis of such analysis, a synthetic macroeconomic interpretation of entrepreneurship is proposed, focused on entrepreneurship as the main support behind the emergence and evolution of conventional expectations. The proposed interpretation makes use of the institutionalist approach typical of Schumpeterian theory to reconcile the single macroeconomic function with the pronounced heterogeneity of entrepreneurial practices. The prismatic role attributed to the socioeconomic context allows for conceptual unification while avoiding the questionable path of universalist synthesis. The proposed interpretation supports the idea that, under most institutional regimes, entrepreneurship ensures certain rent in an uncertain world through the subordination of labor income to capital.
14:00 – 14:30 From entrepreneurship to intrapreneurship: the shift of students’ intentions for entrepreneurial behavior after a business planning course, Kjersti Kjos Longva, NTNU
Senior Opponent: Gry A. Alsos, Nord University ; Junior Opponent: Uladzimir Kamovich, UiT – Arctic University
Objectives: We are interested in developing new approaches to evaluating the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) on students’ career choices. Our research focuses on how students’ perception of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship as career choices develop during a business planning course. By combining traditional survey scales with novel use of conjoint analysis, this study seeks to understand how conjoint analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the impact of EE on participating students. Hence, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, we investigate how participation in a business planning course affect how students see entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship as career choices. Secondly, we explore the potential of conjoint analysis as a methodology to better understand the impact of EE.
Approach: The study employs a quasi-experimental research design with control group and measurements both before and after an EE business planning course. Empirical data was gathered at two campus locations in Norway during spring 2017. This resulted in 99 matched questionnaires of students who had responded at both the T1-survey and the T2-survey. The survey was made up by two parts: a conjoint analysis and a standard questionnaire. While the standard questionnaire captured demographics and traditional survey scales, the conjoint analysis allowed us to capture the underlying decision-processes when students were presented to different job alternatives.
Result: The findings suggest that for our sample, participation in a business planning course actually decreased EI. Further analysis showed that this was the case among female students, while we did not find a similar decrease for males. We found no support for impact on students’ intrapreneurial intention (II) or entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Findings from our conjoint analysis show a significant decrease in the preference for being the only entrepreneur in a new venture, but a significant increase in the preference for doing innovative work in an existing organization.
Implications: In this study, we make three main contributions to research on EE. First, we make a contribution to the scarce empirical literature on the effectiveness of business planning courses. Second, we suggest conjoint analysis as a novel method for investigating the changes in career preferences of students who are participating in EE. Finally, we problematize the widespread use of EI as an impact measure of the effectiveness of EE. In our view, several other perspectives and measure could provide fruitful avenues for further research.
14:30 – 14:45 | Coffee Break – – Move to 2 parallel sessions
PARALLEL A – SESSION 2: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Bjørn T- Asheim, University of Stavanger, Room B2- XXX
14:45 – 15:15 Employee-driven innovation (EDI): Construct clarification, scale development and validation, Chukwuemeka Echebiri, Stein Amundsen and Marit Engen, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences
Senior Opponent: Bjørn T. Asheim, University of Stavanger; Junior Opponent: Mette Solnørdal, UiT – Arctic University
The central assumption that the ‘top-down’ approach is the major source of innovation has been recognized in previous studies as a challenge (Alasoini, 2013; Amundsen, Aasen, Gressgård, & Hansen, 2014; Kesting & Ulhøi, 2010; LO, 2007). That is to say that decisions about major innovations direction is usually entrusted in the hands of a few individuals with specifically assigned functions (e.g. policymakers, Research & Development, managers, and departments (Brandi & Hasse, 2012; Høyrup, 2012).
Ordinary employees, who form the greater population in most organizations are often excluded from taking part in such activities (Kesting & Ulhøi, 2010). However, considering the fact that employees sometimes have practical knowledge of customers, markets and needs, they can take on important role in the process of innovation in companies (Birkinshaw & Duke, 2013; Høyrup et al., 2012). Sometimes, these employees acquire exclusive in-depth and context-dependent knowledge that their manager may not have (Jarle Gressgård, Amundsen, Merethe Aasen, & Hansen, 2014), hence, the concept of Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI).
Although there has been a rising interest in Employee-Driven Innovation research, extant literature is still fragmented and there is hardly any known scale to measure this important construct. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the construct of Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI) on one hand and to develop a reliable and valid measurement instrument that could be used to measure EDI on the other hand. EDI implies a kind of innovation driven by ordinary employees of the organisation. We adopted an integrative approach to scale development by integrating already existing scale from concepts that are linked to EDI such as innovative work behaviour and employee innovation. We identified six dimensions of EDI as follows: problem recognition, idea search, idea generation, idea communication, idea implementation and finally innovation output.
15:15 – 15:45 Board and Team Dynamics and Commercial Development in Scientific Spinoffs, Dipesh Sigdel, Lene Foss
School of Economic and Business, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Senior Opponent:Roger Sørheim; Junior Opponent: Håkon Thue Lie, NTNU
The development paths of research-based spinoffs can be categorized into different phases separated by critical junctures. The firms need certain resources and capabilities to overcome the junctures and to progress from one stage to the other. New research-based spinoffs, due to their past affiliation among other reasons, often have limited resources and capabilities. Thus, the resources and capabilities need to be developed within or accessed from outside to progress to higher stages of development. Under upper echelons perspective, extant literature often focuses on the characteristics of the founding entrepreneurial team to understand how they affect spinoffs’ development. However, after the legal establishment of the spinoffs, boards are introduced into the firm who, through their strategic and service roles, have huge influence on the accessibility and the development of resources and capabilities needed for the commercial development of the spinoffs. Given that there is a lack of literature studying together the dynamics of the entrepreneurial team and the board, there is a need to do so in order to understand how and from where these resources and capabilities are accessed and developed. This paper will discuss the types of resources and capabilities needed by spinoffs at different phases during the commercial development and the degree to which boards and founding teams complement each other in terms of providing the required resources and capabilities to the firm. Using a multiple case study method of four research-based spinoffs in northern Norway, this paper expects to draw propositions on how the entrepreneurial teams and the boards complement each other and how that affects the progression of the firms.
15:45 – 16:15 From novelty to normality – understanding the uptake and the use of car sharing, Elisabeth M. C. Svennevik*,a, Eivind Farstadb and Tom Erik Julsrudc, University of Oslo TIK
Senior Opponent: Lene Foss, UiT – Arctic University; Junior Opponent: Johan Miörner, Circle, Lund University
For some households, car sharing has become their way of using cars. The use changes towards using cars as a mobility service, involving memberships, on-demand access to vehicles, and subscription models. In addition to industrial and technological development, car sharing requires social change among users. Supported by rapid development of online-technologies and increased smartphone use, several lift- and car-sharing services are now emerging. However, both the user context and the providers’ business models vary amongst e.g. cooperatives and peer-to-peer services. Car sharing is important since it creates new opportunities for sustainable mobility. To create a deeper understanding about why and how this is developing, we address the research question: How is car sharing used by urban households? This paper studies the use of car sharing, and focuses on households as the consumer unit in this transition towards more sustainable mobility. The study employs primary data from semi-structured interviews with 32 households using three different types of car-sharing services in Oslo, Norway. To study this transition and analyze the use, social practice theory in a system perspective is applied. This theoretical framework conceptualizes the social, routinized behavior of the users, and thus makes the actual practice of car sharing the unit of analysis. The multilevel perspective on socio-technical innovations enables an exploration of stabilizing and changing dimensions, including policies, in the system. This research first examines how car-sharing practices consist as a co-evolution of materials, meanings and competences. This shows how the elements are connected in the practice; the objects of cars, infrastructure, and booking technologies; the ideas of freedom and obligations, and concerns for the environment; and the skills and learning of planning trips, driving, parking and using applications. Differences in the use of the three different types of services are also revealed. Second, the novelty and the uptake of new users is explained, as well as maintenance of, or defection from the practice. Third, the relation to existing regimes and new niches are discussed; in particular, how car sharing connects to other practices of the households, like leisure trips, shopping and sports activities, and how car sharing relates to the development of EVs and electrical bicycles.
PARALLEL SESSION B, SESSION 3: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Gry A. Alsos, Nord University
14:45 – 15:15 Digitalization in small and micro business in the cultural sector. A case study on perceived benefits and challenges of implementing audience development technology in a consortium, Emma Lind, University of Stavanger, Agderforskning
Senior Opponent: Gry A. Alsos, Nord University; Junior Opponent: Heidi Angell Strøm, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway
What motivates a small group of cultural organisations in south east Norway to engage in a process to collaborate on tickets sales, audience data collection, data analytics and marketing strategies, and do they share a mutual understanding about the outcome of the collaboration? Are there discrepancies between participants’ definition of success and what they expect to have to contribute themselves? Does this collaboration represent a significant change for participants, and how will it affect audiences?
This paper presents a case from an ongoing R&D project in Østfold called “Ny samarbeidsmodell for publikumsutvikling i Østfold” . The project owners are Østfold Kulturutvikling, a cultural production department within Østfold County Council, and Arena Magica, a creative industry cluster, also located in Østfold. The R&D project’s main objective was, and still is, to develop a new collaborative model for audience data collection and strategic data driven audience development between public and private partnerships in the creative industry sector. The objective of this collaboration is to engage in sales of tickets to performances, as well execute communication- and marketing services through strategic data collection, analysis and statistics, and develop an aggregated (‘Big data’) picture of audiences across an entire region. The model for this collaboration has been influenced by similar international consortiums from other industries such as tourism. Together with researchers and expert business consultants, the project participants attempt to re-structure the value- chain of collection and ownership of audience data, by challenging current business models for ticket sales and distribution in Norway. The paper presents both a discussion on the perceived benefits and barriers experienced by the consortium participants as they attempt to implement a new business model, as well as a discussion on their learning process towards understanding the role of ticket agencies (Ticketmaster etc.) in business models in the cultural sector.
Ultimately, this paper hopes to contribute to the discussion of co-creating through digitalization of audience development tools.
15:15 – 15:45 The up and coming – managing institutional logics in a young cultural entrepreneur’s start-up project, Heidi Angell Strøm, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway
Senior Opponent: Gry A. Alsos, Nord University; Junior Opponent: Emma Lind, University of Stavanger, Agderforskning
The creative industry is growing, and its aim to combine peoples passion of art and music with potential economic income, attract the youth. The purpose of this paper is to explore how institutional logics influence young culture entrepreneurs managing their start-up projects. The case study follows three young and talented artist start- up project in order to becoming cultural entrepreneurs. The artists managed their musical talent and introduction to the marked with a temporary organization of a project. Cultural entrepreneurship can be considered as an embracement of the traditional conflict between the competing institutional logics of art and the market. The data set suggest that an young and upcoming artists develops from being a novice to being familiar with the institutional logic of the marked, and at last identifying themselves with and becoming one with the logic. More or less are the institutional logic of the art internalized before they enter their start-up project. The process of being a young entrepreneur in the music industry are complicated and chaotic. The institutional logic of art helps the artist to stay true to their product, which are themselves and their music.
15:45 – 16:15 Does politics matter? Regional development in the EU, Muringani Jonathan1, Fitjar Rune Dahl2 and Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés3
1. UiS Business School, Centre for Innovation Research (CIR) University Of Stavanger,
2. UiS Business School, Centre for Innovation Research (CIR) University Of Stavanger,
3. Department Of Geography, Environment, London School of Economics, London, GBR
Empirical evidence now points to institutions as the missing link in understanding regional disparities (Gertler, 2010; Rodríguez-Pose, 2013). This has become apparent with recent attempts (e.g. Charron, Dijkstra and Lapuente, 2014) to measure institutions at a regional level. However, previous studies have only measured one dimension of political institutions, either quality of regional government (Charron, et al., 2014; Rodriguez-Pose & Di Cataldo, 2014) or strength of regional authority (Marks, Hooghe & Schakel, 2008; Ezcurra & Rodriguez-Pose &, 2011) but this paper will consider both including the interaction between them.
The paper takes an interdisciplinary approach (Klein, 2008) drawing from innovation studies (Lundvall, 2013), evolutionary economic geography (Boschma & Frenken, 2006) and political science (Jessop, 2016). This is important for creating the necessary borderlines to allow for differentiation and engaged pluralism to allow borrowing between the subject areas (Lundvall, 2013; Hassink, 2014).
The paper leverages on the existing work on the quality of government (Charron et al., 2014) and regional authority index (Marks et al., 2008). It uses panel data on the EU NUTS 2 regions and a dynamic econometric model for data analysis. The paper contributes to understanding of how political institutions affect regional economic development. The findings will also provide recommendations to guide the EU’s Cohesion policy and related policy. Otherwise, regional disparities will pose an existential threat to the nation-states and the EU (Dudek, 2005; Moreno, 2006; Fitjar, 2010).
16:15 – 16:30 | Coffee Break
16:30 – 16:55 | NORSI Alumni Perspective, Marte C. W. Solheim, University of Stavanger
16:55 – 17:20 | NORSI Alumni Perspective, Kenneth Stålsett, Sør-Varanger Utvikling
17:20 – 19:30 | Tapas Dinner and Socializing/networking – Everyone welcome!
Day 2: Friday, 12 January 2018
09:00 – 9:30 | Registration and Coffee/Tea – Move to 2 paralell sessions
PARALLEL A – SESSION 4: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Magnus Gulbrandsen, UiO- TIK
9:30 – 10:00 Trade Secret Management in Teams: The role of Psychological Contracts and Group Dynamics, Haakon Thue Lie, Leogriff AS and NTNU
Senior Opponent: Kenneth Stålsett, Sør-Varanger Utvikling; Junior Opponent: Dipesh Sigdel, UiT – Arctic University
Trade secrets are important as an appropriation mechanism for innovation. If a trade secret is disclosed, then it may be copied by competitors, and a patent application may be impossible. Research and development, R&D, is often done by teams. The teams can be internal for a firm, or be inter-organisational. If the duration of the project is long, then psychological contracts (PC) will develop. The PC may be vertical, between employer and employee. The PC can also be horizontal and internal to the team. If the R&D project has high potential value, then it is important to mitigate the risk from possible disclosure of trade secrets. A model is presented that shows how PC for long duration teams, may add to the commonly used employment contracts and non-disclosure agreements, NDA. For the teams that are both of long duration and work with projects of high value, new tools based on group dynamics may mitigate the risks of trade secret disclosure. This model can be applied to open innovation and inter-organisational projects.
SPGR is a well-established group dynamics tool concerning team development. The theory behind, “spin-theory”, has four group functions, consistent with the major functions of other theories on group development. The functions are related to issues in trade secret management. An experiment is outlined that can indicate if such tools are of use for trade secret management
10:00 – 10:30 Sustainable value creation in short value chains -A multidisciplinary approach including empirical research in local food companies in northern Norway, Hilde Halland, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway
Senior Opponent: Roger Sørheim, NTNU; Junior Opponent: Sveinung Grimsby, UiO TIK, Nofima
This thesis explores how values are created in local food companies with short supply chains. The thesis focus on sustainability as a concept for value creation and for value chain analysis. What is value and how is value created has been heavily debated. The concept of sustainability adds to this discussion and broadens the scope of what values are and how values can be perceived. The sustainability will be examined based on social factors, economic factors and environmental factors.
The work will consist of three articles, where empirical research in the barley to beer, through local malt, sector in northern Norway will form the base for developing new knowledge. Methods will include systematic literature review, case study and text analysis.
Combining different ways of exploring values created will give a broader view of the complexity of short value chains in the local food sector. In addition, the thesis, will give implication for a more sustainable development.
The research question for this thesis is: How can short local value chains be sustainably developed in the barley – malt – beer sector in northern Norway?
10:30 – 11:00 Defensive innovation: business model innovation in the newspaper industry in Norway, Jakoba Sraml Gonzalez, UiO- TIK
Senior Opponent: Bjørn T. Asheim ; Junior Opponent: Hilde Halland, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway
This paper examines the business model changes in the newspaper industry as a response to the challenges of digitalisation. It particularly looks at the role of perception and sensemaking for business model innovation in the face of digitalisation challenges in the newspaper industry in Norway. The findings from 29 interviews with industry actors indicate that the newspapers engaged in high levels of experimentation with business models in the last couple of years as a response to the challenges. While some changes were necessity driven to control the costs, the newspapers increasingly opted also for experiments with new products and services. Experimentation brought internal challenges in form of both learning new competences and dealing with organisational rigidities linked to the own understanding of the traditional role of newspapers. Struggling to imagine a new role in the digital economy and consequently unable to marry the old and new role internally, the newspapers often opted for “defensive innovation” strategies directed towards doing something new in order to preserve a core value of the good old organisations, namely traditional journalism.
11:00 – 11:30 Institutional Agency in New Path Development: Towards Self-Driving Cars in West Sweden, Johan Miörner, CIRCLE, Lund University
Senior Opponent: Magnus Gulbrandsen, UiO- TIK ; Junior Opponent: John-Erik Rørheim, University of Stavanger
There is an increasing recognition of the importance of new path development to preserve or enhance the competitiveness of regional economies. In Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG), studies have started to take into account the institutional dimension, and institutional agency, in studies of regional industrial change. However, whilst studies have provided useful insights when it comes to understanding the creation of new institutions, in particular when purposively engaged in by mindful actors, its current application in EEG does not cover the breadth of institutional agency at play in processes of new path development. First, studies have largely neglecting institutional agency targeting the maintenance or disruption of institutions. Second, forms of institutional agency involving the identification and alignment of activities to favourable institutional arrangements, without involving institutional change, has not been taken into account. In this paper, I draw on advancements in institutional theory which have provided insights with regards to how actors engage with institutions, and the concept of ‘institutional navigation’ (Sotarauta, 2016), and integrate these in existing theorizing of new path development. The conceptual framework is applied to a case study of the development of a Self-Driving Car path in West Sweden, providing empirical illustrations of the conceptual arguments brought forward.
PARALLEL B – SESSION 5: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Lene Foss, UiT Arctic University
9:30 – 10:00 Evaluating Access to Research Results: Knowledge Feedback in Entrepreneurial Universities Seen from Collaboration Agreements in Publicly Funded University-Industry Collaborations, Knut Jørgen Egelie, NTNU
Senior Opponent: Lene Foss, UiT Arctic University; Junior Opponent: Sølvi Solvoll, Nord University
Access to knowledge from publicly funded university-industry collaborations. How to improve access models to research results produced in publicly funded university-industry research projects – a third mission impossible? By highlighting the key limitations in the debate of optimal access to knowledge for the common good this paper bridges the dichotomy of an inductive model/empirical study with the development of a qualitative IP ontology to be able to characterize the impact of contractual terms on access knowledge distribution and sharing. The study addresses the lack of good data and models recognized in the literature for measuring innovation impact and knowledge access on a pre-project and contractual level. The paper draws on an ongoing study of collaborations agreements from public funded university industry-research projects in Norway. It has implications for policy-makers and institutional strategy for contract management and knowledge access development by linking teaching, research, and third mission activities. The university sector is highly diverse and we argue that the third mission can and should reinforce the missions of teaching and research. Moreover, we make the case that embedding the third mission and viewing the three missions as mutually constitutive is essential for the future coherence of the modern university in the first-second and third mission dichotomy.
10:00 – 10:30 Closing the energy efficiency gap – A systematic review of drives for energy efficiency in manufacturing firms, Mette Talseth Solnørdal, og Lene Foss, UiT -The Arctic University
Senior Opponent: Taran Thune, UiO- TIK, Junior Opponent: Jakoba Gonzales, UiO TIK
The manufacturing sector is the largest end-user of energy, accounting for about 50% of the world’s energy consumption. Increased energy efficiency in manufacturing firms is thus an important method to reduce global energy use and mitigate climate change challenges. However, research documents a substantial, unexploited potential for energy efficiency in this sector. In order for practitioners and policy-makers to properly stimulate energy efficiency they need a comprehensive understanding of the driving forces that affect the firms´ willingness and ability to improve their energy efficiency.
A critical review of the literature on drivers for energy efficiency in manufacturing firms has emphasised the need for a comprehensive taxonomy. Based on a systematic literature review (SLR) of empirical articles on the topic published between 1978 and the end of 2016, the paper provides a taxonomy that encompasses the most significant drivers identified in empirical studies, and accounts for the mediating effect of the drivers. By synthesising the results from the empirical literature we have been able to determine the drivers that are most important at an aggregated level. We find that organizational and economic drivers are the most important stimulus for energy efficiency in manufacturing firms, followed by policy instruments and market drivers. Moreover, we find that firm size and industry sector have a mediating effect on the other drivers. The review proposes a useful instrument both to practitioners and policy-makers to identify critical drivers to improve energy efficiency in manufacturing firms and provides avenues for future research in this topic.
10:30 – 11:00 Simulation in nursing- Enhancing quality through technological training environments, Odd Rune Stalheim, Høgskolen i Innlandet
Senior Opponent: Taran Thune, UiO- TIK; Junior Opponent: Kjersti Kjor Longva, NTNU
This study presents a broad and inclusive account of how technological innovations such as high fidelity simulations affects students’ experiences in practice within their studies and how they perceive quality. Further investigates the paper how simulations assist nursing students in reducing the gap between theory and practice in safe and secure conditions and prepare them for real life clinical experiences.
Simulation has the advantage that it prepares students for real life, at the same time is it easy to adjust the level of difficulties and let students practice vital procedures (Tosterud, 2015). Health simulations in safe environments offer students an unique opportunity to practice skills and build self-efficacy while circumventing the possibility of human injury or distress (Rooney, Hopwood, Boud, & Kelly, 2015). A simulation is a context for teaching and learning which is deemed to have a huge potential for offering students affective, cognitive and psychomotor challenges in learning. After the activity follows debriefing that gives students the opportunity to go through their actions, reflect, and learn from eventual mistakes (Tosterud, 2015).
This study is an explorative case study, which consist of six interviews and two observations in the simulation lab. Interviews were conducted individually and in groups with students, teacher, study program leaders and supervisors. Analysis and coding of transcripts and observations has been performed by using NVIVO 10. All the data were first independently reviewed and then pedagogically interesting moments and passages were identified and analyzed.
The study implicates that simulation is useful for practicing procedures ahead of real life practice, makes students more confident in procedures and help secure that they learn the same. In spite of the opportunities to practice and gain more self-efficacy, students show fear of failing and emphasized the need for close and supportive care from their supervisors.
Rooney, D., Hopwood, N., Boud, D., & Kelly, M. (2015). The role of simulation in pedagogies of higher education for the health professions: Through a practice-based lens. Vocations and learning, 8(3), 269-285.
Tosterud, R. (2015). Simulation used as a learning approach in nursing education: Students’ experiences and validation of evaluation questionnaires. Disertation, Karlstads universitet.
11:00 – 11:30 Digitalization and responsibility as a driver for a successful new venture creation, Raj Kumar Thapa, UiS
Senior Opponent: Lene Foss, UiT Arctic University; Junior Opponent: Olga Mikhailova, BI
Digital innovation and entrepreneurship, and Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) have emerged as topics of interest. So far, very few studies, if any, have looked at them as a combination. In view of this, we explore how firms organize for successful new venture creation based on the case study of nine firms at the different life stages (pre-launched, launched and established) within the digital health and welfare sector. We observe that while digital technologies considerably enhance new venture ideas, firms need to exhibit a certain set of practices to increase their opportunity confidence. We refer to these practices as responsible innovation principles, including anticipation of risks, stakeholder inclusiveness, reflectiveness and responsiveness. These are necessary for taking the ideas enabled by digital technologies to the market and further obtain sustainable business development. Further, observing firms at different life stages reveals some interesting nuances. On the one hand, firms in pre-launch and launch phases tend to focus on risk anticipation; on the other hand, firms at the later stages of development have emphasis on user inclusiveness and are more reflexive and responsive. Based on these findings, we develop a theory that suggests that in order to go through a successful new venture creation process in a new digital-driven environment firms have to increase their anticipation of risks, user inclusiveness, reflexivity and responsiveness. We conclude our theorizing by discussing its implications for both entrepreneurs and policymakers.
11-30 – 12:00 | NORSI Alumni Perspective, Sølvi Solvoll, Nord University
12:00 – 12:30 | Lunch – outside B2 – 060
PARALLEL A – SESSION 6: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair, Roger Sørheim, NTNU
12:30- 13:00 Do all roads lead to the innovation capability? A study of dynamic capabilities in the Norwegian municipal sector, Petter Gullmark, Nord University
Senior Opponent: Roger Sørheim, NTNU; Junior Opponent: Raj Kumar Thapa, UiS
This study uses inductive theory-building techniques to explore how different configurations of micro-foundations shape the development of dynamic innovation capability in three Norwegian municipalities. This article’s first contribution is the combination of the theories of micro-foundations and dynamic capabilities in an empirical study of the under-researched context of the public sector. Moreover, this research identifies 11 individual-level, interaction and process-level, and structure-level micro-foundations of dynamic innovation capability in the public context. In doing so, it provides new insights into the extant literature by providing an empirical example of the micro-foundations of dynamic innovation capability and showing their features in a non-market context. Additionally, the analysis reveals that past decisions and the chosen strategies of micro-foundation configuration in each municipality have led to three types of dynamic innovation capability—individual-driven, interaction-driven, and structure-driven. Although the analyzed organizations have developed various methods, tools, and structures to continuously transform knowledge and ideas into innovations, the key attributes of their innovation capabilities are similar—they are built on the same micro-foundations, which interact with each other, and they all allow the organization to continuously develop innovations. This finding has implications not only for the public administration and management theories but also for practitioners because it shows that equifinality of dynamic capabilities (e.g., Eisenhardt and Martin, 2000)—i.e., the existence of multiple paths to obtaining dynamic innovation capability—also occurs in the context of the public sector.
13:00 – 13:30 Litterature review – Projectification, Renathe Jakobsen, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway
Senior Opponent: Marte C. W. Solheim, UiS; Junior Opponent: Jonathan Murigani, UiS
Projects are a form of organization that is becoming increasingly popular across all sectors in Norway and other countries. This is a phenomenon that has been referred to as projectification. Research on projectification is limited. Few studies address the implications of the projectification process, and there is little knowledge on how the projectification has influenced the hierarchical functional organization. There are many studies on project management, how best to manage and about the success or failure of projects. There is also extensive body of literature on the complexity of network management and on public administration. This article reviews the literature on projectification , and aim to expand our understanding of the phenomenon. We seek to answer the following questions in review: 1) what is projectification? 2) How does it work? And 3) What gaps exist in the literature, which can form a basis for further research? Answering these questions give direction to further studies of the phenomenon. This review describes Projectification as an ongoing research debate, an area that require more research and that have several paradoxes and gaps to shed light on.
PARALLEL A – SESSION 7: STUDENT PRESENTATIONS, Session Chair,Taran Thune, UiO TIK
12:30 – 13:00 Competitive professional logics in a municipal service innovation, Sigrid Myklebø, Inland Norway University of applied sciences
Senior Opponent: Taran Thune, UiO TIK; Junior Opponent: Gry Høiland, UiS
Competitive professional logics in a municipal service innovation Since 2004, Norwegian municipalities are responsible for qualifying refugees to the Norwegian labour market through a two-year introduction program. It is mainly the adult education and the refugee services who are responsible for managing the program locally – two institutions consisting of different professions. The professions are dominated by different ‘professional logics’ that are the basis of fundamental understandings that are taken for granted and form both goals and means. Several municipalities develop innovative solutions to make the program more work-oriented. Opposing institutional logics can constitute an obstacle to this work. Research question: How do differing, competing professional logics affect the development and implementation of a municipal service innovation, and to what extent do innovation lead to change in professional logics? The paper discusses how opposing professional logics can inhibit innovation, and to what extent institutional change occurs during the innovation process. The empirical material comes from a qualitative case study of a municipal innovation process. This municipality has made significant changes in order to develop and implement work-oriented training in the introductory program. The main part of the empirical material is interviews done at three different periods. The findings aim to provide a better understanding of how institutional logics can create barriers to innovation in organizations and municipalities where different professional actors with different institutional logics are involved, and how one may overcome these barriers.
13:00 – 13:30 Innovation modes of collaboration and firm level innovation. Does “more of all” really benefit firms? Silje Haus-Reve, UiS
Senior Opponent: Arne Isaksen, UiA, Junior Opponent: Babak Gassim, UiT Arctic University
It has been often argued in scholarly literature that a combination of the traditional linear mode of innovation based on investment in R&D and scientific knowledge (the so-called STI innovation mode – Science, Technology and Innovation) with modes based on practice and interaction across the supply chain (DUI innovation mode – Doing, Using and Interacting) guarantees the best results in terms of firm-level innovation, especially in advanced economies. However, this assumption has been rarely tested empirically. In this paper, we assess whether this is the case in Norway, using an unbalanced panel sample with 26,398 Firm-level observations, covering the period 2001–2010. The dataset is based on linked public register data and innovation survey data. The results of the econometric analysis challenge existing knowledge, as they show that Norwegian firms do not benefit by doing “more of all” on their road to innovation. Firms that try to juggle STI and DUI modes of innovation are not more innovative than firms that concentrate on one type of innovation. Firms that focus on STI and DUI within the supply chain introduce more innovations, but firm engagement in more than one innovation mode is not associated with a higher probability to innovate. The results are robust to the introduction of different controls and hold for all tested models and for all innovation outcomes: product innovation, process innovation and new-to-market innovation.
13:30 – 14:00 Multiple Business Models: A Literature Review, Tristán Nabong, University of Stavanger
Senior Opponent: Roger Sørheim, NTNU; Junior Opponent: Beniamino Callegari, BI
While scholars argue that business model represents a new unit of analysis that is distinct from the product, firm, industry and network, it seems the last three decades of business model research, scholars have not fully explored this phenomenon. As such, there seems to be a long-held assumption that firms have one business model. On the contrary, there is an argument that this is not the case. Accordingly, the latter argument has given rise to a more recent interest in the phenomenon of multiple business models. Therefore, this warrants a critical review of the literature in order to understand the “state of the art” in multiple business model research. The main contribution of this paper is propose a conceptual framework and a set of propositions. The main contribution of this literature review is identify the gaps in the literature and offer suggestions for future research.
14:00 – 14:15 | Summary/Ending remarks in B2 – 060
14:15 | Adjourn